Thyroid Autoimmune Disease

Abstract Autoimmune diseases are a group of disorders in which the immune system dysfunctions and attacks host tissues. Although the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disease has not been elucidated, there are several factors that have been associated with the disorder. Factors include genetic predisposition, nutrient deficiencies, use of certain medications…

Fibromyalgia, Thyroid Dysfunction and Treatment Modalities

Abstract Fibromyalgia is a debilitating condition presenting with symptoms of chronic muscular pain, fatigue, insomnia and cognitive dysfunction among other symptoms, which lead to a diminished quality of life. Although the exact pathogenesis and underlying mechanisms which lead to clinical manifestation are unknown, there is a growing line of evidence…

Autoimmune Thyroiditis and Iodine Therapy

Abstract The incidence of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, also referred to as goitrous autoimmune thyroiditis, is estimated to be equivalent to that of Grave’s disease. Although first discovered one hundred years ago, the pathophysiology of this disease has not yet been completely defined. Patients present with varying degrees of symptoms and may…

Estriol; the ‘Good’ Estrogen Advances and Updates in its Clinical Uses

Abstract Estriol, coined the “weaker” of the three endogenous estrogens, has significant therapeutic effects, some of which are little known to clinicians. Estriol provides numerous clinical benefits, commanding the attention of researchers dating as far back as 1966 and continues to garner substantial consideration as a valuable and viable therapeutic…

New Concepts in Cardiovascular Disease

Abstract We have reached a limit in our ability to reduce the incidence of coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease utilizing the traditional evaluation, prevention, and treatment strategies for the top five cardiovascular risk factors—hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, obesity and smoking. Statistics show that approximately 50% of patients continue to…

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