Extra-Thyroidal Factors Impacting Thyroid Hormone Homeostasis: A Review

Abstract Peripheral metabolism plays a significant role in maintaining thyroid hormone expression in local tissues. The thyroid secretes thyroxine (T4) at substantially greater levels than triiodothyronine (T3), relying on peripheral mechanisms to convert T4 to T3. Peripheral control is exerted through a number of pathways. These pathways include deiodination, facilitated…

Chelation Therapy for Cardiovascular Disease: Bringing it Back to the Future

Chelation therapy, a treatment long undervalued by conventional medicine, has been used by alternative medicine practitioners to alleviate various metabolic toxicities. In particular, there has been significant controversy around its use in patients with coronary artery disease. We performed a focused review of the recent National Institute of Health (NIH)…

Osteoporosis: The Need for Prevention and Treatment

Abstract Osteoporosis is a preventable, potentially crippling disease characterized by low bone density and increased bone fragility that affects millions of people. The seeds of this pernicious disease are sown during adolescence, when the skeleton is most active in absorbing dietary calcium and building up nearly all the bone mass…

Thyroid Autoimmune Disease

Abstract Autoimmune diseases are a group of disorders in which the immune system dysfunctions and attacks host tissues. Although the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disease has not been elucidated, there are several factors that have been associated with the disorder. Factors include genetic predisposition, nutrient deficiencies, use of certain medications…

Autoimmune Thyroiditis and Iodine Therapy

Abstract The incidence of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, also referred to as goitrous autoimmune thyroiditis, is estimated to be equivalent to that of Grave’s disease. Although first discovered one hundred years ago, the pathophysiology of this disease has not yet been completely defined. Patients present with varying degrees of symptoms and may…

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