- Manganese is an essential trace nutrient. The human body contains about 10 milligrams of manganese, which is stored mainly in the liver, kidneys, pancreas, and bones.In the human brain, manganese is bound to manganese metalloproteins. Manganese activates enzymes responsible for the use of several key nutrients, including B vitamins (biotin, thiamin), vitamin C, and choline. It aids in the synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol, facilitates protein and carbohydrate metabolism, and may also participate in the production of sex hormones and maintaining reproductive health.
- Manganese has been examined as a treatment for a variety of conditions, including osteoarthritis and wound healing. However, manganese is often used in combination with other vitamins and/or minerals. Therefore, the effects of manganese alone are difficult to determine.
- Chronic exposure to excessive manganese levels can lead to a variety of psychiatric and motor disturbances, termed manganism.
The combination of manganese-cobalt oligosol may have an effect on muscle relaxation. Additional studies are needed in this area.
|Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
Selenium, manganese, and zinc plasma levels may aid mechanical ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Additional studies are needed.
The effects of toothpaste containing manganese chloride on dental cavities has been studied. However, results are unclear and additional studies are needed.
The effects on growth of manganese in combination with other vitamins or minerals have been examined. The role of manganese alone cannot be determined. Additional studies are needed.
N-acetyl cysteine, vitamins A-E, biotin, selenium, zinc, manganese, copper, magnesium, folic acid, and coenzyme Q in combination showed a lack of effect on alcoholic hepatitis. Additional studies are needed in this area.
Manganese ascorbate in combination with sodium chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine has demonstrated benefit in patients with osteoarthritis. However, the role of manganese alone cannot be determined from these studies. Additional studies are needed.
Supplemental calcium and trace minerals (copper, manganese, and zinc) increased bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. However, the effects of manganese alone cannot be determined. More research is needed in this area.
A combination of calcium and manganese may alleviate symptoms associated with premenstrual syndrome. However, the effects of manganese alone cannot be determined. Further research is needed.
A combination of 7-oxo-DHEA, l-tyrosine, asparagus root extract, choline bitartrate, inositol, copper gluconate, manganese, and potassium iodide has been examined for its effects on weight loss. Additional research is needed in this area.
Manganese in combination with calcium and zinc may be beneficial in patients with chronic wounds. Additional research is needed in this area.
*Key to grades:
A: Strong scientific evidence for this use;
B: Good scientific evidence for this use;
C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use;
D: Fair scientific evidence against this use (it may not work);
F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likely does not work).
- Allergies, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, anemia (microcytic), antibiotic, antioxidant, antiviral, asthma, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autoimmune disorders (advanced beta-cell autoimmunity), bone diseases, cancer, cancer (prevention), colorectal cancer, deficiency (manganese), diabetes, epilepsy, gastrointestinal conditions, heart disease, heavy metal/lead toxicity, high cholesterol, immunomodulation, inflammation, learning disabilities, metabolic syndrome (coronary heart disease), multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, neural tube defects, obesity, rheumatoid arthritis, schizophrenia, skin conditions, sprains and strains, vascular disorders (Behçet's disease).
Adults (18 years and older)
- There is no proven effective dose for manganese for any condition in adults.
- The adequate intake (AI) levels for manganese are as follows: for men 19-70 years old: 2.3 milligrams; for men more than 70 years old: 2.3 milligrams; for women 19-70 years old: 1.8 milligrams; for women more than 70 years old: 1.8 milligrams; for pregnant women 14-50 years old: two milligrams; and for lactating women 14-50 years old: two milligrams.
- The requirements of manganese for adults from total parenteral nutrition are estimated to be 0.15-0.80 milligrams daily.
Children (under 18 years old)
- There is no proven effective dose for manganese in children.
- The adequate intake (AI) levels for manganese are as follows: for those 0-6 months old: three micrograms; for those 7-12 months old: 600 micrograms; for those 1-3 years old: 1.2 milligrams; for those 4-8 years old: 1.5 milligrams; for boys 9-13 years old: 1.9 milligrams; for boys 14-18 years old: 2.2 milligrams; for girls 9-13 years old: 1.6 milligrams; and for girls 14-18 years old: 1.6 milligrams.
- The requirements of manganese for children from total parenteral nutrition are estimated to be 10 micrograms per kilogram daily.
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