INDEX

Manganese

Background

  • Manganese is an essential trace nutrient. The human body contains about 10 milligrams of manganese, which is stored mainly in the liver, kidneys, pancreas, and bones.In the human brain, manganese is bound to manganese metalloproteins. Manganese activates enzymes responsible for the use of several key nutrients, including B vitamins (biotin, thiamin), vitamin C, and choline. It aids in the synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol, facilitates protein and carbohydrate metabolism, and may also participate in the production of sex hormones and maintaining reproductive health.
  • Manganese has been examined as a treatment for a variety of conditions, including osteoarthritis and wound healing. However, manganese is often used in combination with other vitamins and/or minerals. Therefore, the effects of manganese alone are difficult to determine.
  • Chronic exposure to excessive manganese levels can lead to a variety of psychiatric and motor disturbances, termed manganism.

Scientific Evidence

Uses Grade*
Antispasmodic

The combination of manganese-cobalt oligosol may have an effect on muscle relaxation. Additional studies are needed in this area.

C
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

Selenium, manganese, and zinc plasma levels may aid mechanical ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Additional studies are needed.

C
Dental caries

The effects of toothpaste containing manganese chloride on dental cavities has been studied. However, results are unclear and additional studies are needed.

C
Growth

The effects on growth of manganese in combination with other vitamins or minerals have been examined. The role of manganese alone cannot be determined. Additional studies are needed.

C
Hepatitis (alcoholic)

N-acetyl cysteine, vitamins A-E, biotin, selenium, zinc, manganese, copper, magnesium, folic acid, and coenzyme Q in combination showed a lack of effect on alcoholic hepatitis. Additional studies are needed in this area.

C
Osteoarthritis

Manganese ascorbate in combination with sodium chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine has demonstrated benefit in patients with osteoarthritis. However, the role of manganese alone cannot be determined from these studies. Additional studies are needed.

C
Osteoporosis

Supplemental calcium and trace minerals (copper, manganese, and zinc) increased bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. However, the effects of manganese alone cannot be determined. More research is needed in this area.

C
Premenstrual syndrome

A combination of calcium and manganese may alleviate symptoms associated with premenstrual syndrome. However, the effects of manganese alone cannot be determined. Further research is needed.

C
Weight loss

A combination of 7-oxo-DHEA, l-tyrosine, asparagus root extract, choline bitartrate, inositol, copper gluconate, manganese, and potassium iodide has been examined for its effects on weight loss. Additional research is needed in this area.

C
Wound healing

Manganese in combination with calcium and zinc may be beneficial in patients with chronic wounds. Additional research is needed in this area.

C

*Key to grades:

A: Strong scientific evidence for this use;

B: Good scientific evidence for this use;

C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use;

D: Fair scientific evidence against this use (it may not work);

F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likely does not work).

Tradition

  • Allergies, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, anemia (microcytic), antibiotic, antioxidant, antiviral, asthma, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autoimmune disorders (advanced beta-cell autoimmunity), bone diseases, cancer, cancer (prevention), colorectal cancer, deficiency (manganese), diabetes, epilepsy, gastrointestinal conditions, heart disease, heavy metal/lead toxicity, high cholesterol, immunomodulation, inflammation, learning disabilities, metabolic syndrome (coronary heart disease), multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, neural tube defects, obesity, rheumatoid arthritis, schizophrenia, skin conditions, sprains and strains, vascular disorders (Behçet’s disease).

Dosing

Adults (18 years and older)

  • There is no proven effective dose for manganese for any condition in adults.
  • The adequate intake (AI) levels for manganese are as follows: for men 19-70 years old: 2.3 milligrams; for men more than 70 years old: 2.3 milligrams; for women 19-70 years old: 1.8 milligrams; for women more than 70 years old: 1.8 milligrams; for pregnant women 14-50 years old: two milligrams; and for lactating women 14-50 years old: two milligrams.
  • The requirements of manganese for adults from total parenteral nutrition are estimated to be 0.15-0.80 milligrams daily.

Children (under 18 years old)

  • There is no proven effective dose for manganese in children.
  • The adequate intake (AI) levels for manganese are as follows: for those 0-6 months old: three micrograms; for those 7-12 months old: 600 micrograms; for those 1-3 years old: 1.2 milligrams; for those 4-8 years old: 1.5 milligrams; for boys 9-13 years old: 1.9 milligrams; for boys 14-18 years old: 2.2 milligrams; for girls 9-13 years old: 1.6 milligrams; and for girls 14-18 years old: 1.6 milligrams.
  • The requirements of manganese for children from total parenteral nutrition are estimated to be 10 micrograms per kilogram daily.

References

  1. Benevolenskaia LI, Toroptsova NV, Nikitinskaia OA, et al. [Vitrum osteomag in prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women: results of the comparative open multicenter trial]. Ter Arkh. 2004;76(11):88-93. View Abstract
  2. Czeizel AE, Dudás I. Prevention of the first occurrence of neural-tube defects by periconceptional vitamin supplementation. N Engl J Med. 1992 Dec 24;327(26):1832-5. View Abstract
  3. Das A Jr, Hammad TA. Efficacy of a combination of FCHG49 glucosamine hydrochloride, TRH122 low molecular weight sodium chondroitin sulfate and manganese ascorbate in the management of knee osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2000 Sep;8(5):343-50. View Abstract
  4. Davison GW, Hughes CM, Bell RA. Exercise and mononuclear cell DNA damage: the effects of antioxidant supplementation. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2005 Oct;15(5):480-92. View Abstract
  5. El-Attar M, Said M, El-Assal G, et al. Serum trace element levels in COPD patient: the relation between trace element supplementation and period of mechanical ventilation in a randomized controlled trial. Respirology. 2009 Nov;14(8):1180-7. Epub 2009 Sep 16. View Abstract
  6. Harrison RL, Cheraskin E, Ringsdorf WM Jr, et al. The effect of multivitamin-trace mineral versus placebo supplementation upon the height-weight ratio (ponderal index). Int Z Vitaminforsch. 1969;39(4):486-91. View Abstract
  7. Koch G. Comparison and estimation of effect on caries of daily supervised toothbrushing with a dentifrice containing sodium fluoride and a dentifrice containing potassium fluoride and manganese chloride. A three-year clinical test. Odontol Revy. 1972;23(3):341-54. View Abstract
  8. Leffler CT, Philippi AF, Leffler SG, et al. Glucosamine,chondroitin, and manganese ascorbate for degenerative joint disease of the knee or low back: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Mil Med. 1999 Feb;164(2):85-91. View Abstract
  9. Penland JG, Johnson PE. Dietary calcium and manganese effects on menstrual cycle symptoms. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1993 May;168(5):1417-23. View Abstract
  10. Rivera JA, González-Cossío T, Flores M, et al. Multiple micronutrient supplementation increases the growth of Mexican infants. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Nov;74(5):657-63. View Abstract
  11. Salducci J, Planche D. [A therapeutic trial in patients with spasmophilia]. Sem Hop. 1982 Oct 7;58(36):2097-100. View Abstract
  12. Stewart S, Prince M, Bassendine M, et al. A randomized trial of antioxidant therapy alone or with corticosteroids in acute alcoholic hepatitis. J Hepatol. 2007 Aug;47(2):277-83. View Abstract
  13. Strause L, Saltman P, Smith KT, et al. Spinal bone loss in postmenopausal women supplemented with calcium and trace minerals. J Nutr. 1994 Jul;124(7):1060-4. View Abstract
  14. Uusitalo L, Kenward MG, Virtanen SM, et al. Intake of antioxidant vitamins and trace elements during pregnancy and risk of advanced beta cell autoimmunity in the child. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Aug;88(2):458-64. View Abstract
  15. Whelan AM, Jurgens TM, Bowles SK. Natural health products in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis: systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Ann Pharmacother. 2006 May;40(5):836-49. View Abstract