Rather than choice, chance or genetic predetermination, it is childhood adversity that creates the susceptibility for addiction. Humans and animals require nurturing from a caregiver in order to survive, When a child does not receive consistent, secure interactions, or experiences painfully stressing ones, maldevelopment results. In vivo studies have shown that marked alterations in neurotransmitter systems occur within one week of separation from the mother, whereas animals receiving various kinds of nurturing contact during their infancy have shown more efficient brain circuitry for reducing anxiety as adults. Moreover, in vivo studies have demonstrated that animals exposed to prenatal stress ...Read More
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