Endocrinology

ABSTRACT Background: Iodine is a vital micronutrient essential for thyroid hormone synthesis and neurological development in utero and in the early postpartum period. Maternal iodine deficiency during pregnancy can result in infant congenital hypothyroidism. Congenital hypothyroidism is the most prevalent preventable cause of mental retardation in the world. Some proponents of supplementation believe that products containing both iodine (I2) and iodide (I−) are therapeutically superior to iodide-only formulations. As a step toward evaluating this claim, we tested three commercially available products that list both iodine and iodide on the label, to determine their content. Design: Two powdered and one aqueous ...
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Iodine is an essential trace mineral that is necessary for thyroid hormone production. With the prevalence of iodine deficiency worldwide, universal salt iodization programs were successfully implemented to reduce the incidence of iodine deficiency disorders; however, unexpected increases in the prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity occurred, and iodine excess was implicated as the causative factor. Despite these observations, epidemiological studies are inconsistent, and the etiology of autoimmune thyroid disease remains undefined. A review of observational and in vitro studies revealed that iodine alone is not responsible for thyroid autoimmunity. Experimental models used to explain iodine excess as the culprit in ...
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Autoimmune thyroid diseases, including Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, are the most common autoimmune conditions in humans. There is significant morbidity associated with thyroid autoimmunity, and typically ongoing management is required to control disease presentation and reduce sequelae. Thyroid tissues contain the highest concentration of selenium in the body, owing to selenium’s crucial role in glutathione peroxidases, thioredoxin reductases, and iodothryonine deiodinases. Selenium deficiency is associated with sub-optimal thyroid function, and has been shown to be a risk factor for both Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and Graves’ disease. As a therapeutic intervention, selenium has been shown in a number of studies ...
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New research is demonstrating that thyroid hormone transport across cellular membranes plays an important role in intracellular triiodothyronine (T3) levels of peripheral and pituitary tissues and is proving to have considerable clinical significance. Reduced T4 and T3 transport into the cells in peripheral tissues is seen with a wide range of common conditions, including insulin resistance, diabetes, depression, bipolar disorder, hyperlipidemia, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, neurodegenerative diseases, migraines, stress, anxiety, chronic dieting and aging, while the intracellular T3 level in the pituitary often remains unaffected. The pituitary has different transporters than every other tissue in the body. The thyroid ...
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There have been recent advances in understanding of the local control of thyroid activity and metabolism, including deiodinase activity and thyroid hormone membrane transport. The goal of this review is to increase the understanding of the clinical relevance of cellular deiodinase activity. The physiologic significance of types 1, 2 and 3 deiodinase (D1, D2 and D3, respectively) on the intracellular production of T3 are discussed along with the importance and significance of the production of reverse T3. The difference in the pituitary and peripheral activity of these deidoidinases under a wide range of common physiologic conditions results in different ...
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Glycyrrhiza may be appropriate as an adjunctive therapy for a variety of disorders involving mild adrenal insufficiency, low aldosterone output, or hyperkalemia due to effects on 11-β-HSD enzymes, direct effects at mineralocorticoid receptors, and downstream effects on aldosterone as well as fluid and electrolyte balance. Glycyrrhiza has also been shown to help correct hyperkalemia that may result from spirolactone therapy in PCOS. Patients with orthostatic hypotension may respond to Glycyrrhiza therapy due to its ability to improve blood volume and potassium levels and reduce activation of baroreceptors. >> Hear Dr. Jillian Stansbury Speak at the Restorative Medicine Conference! << ...
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Iodine is an essential component of thyroid hormones and is therefore essential for normal thyroid function. However, the therapeutic use of iodine requires careful evaluation because of its narrow range of intake to support optimal thyroid function. The combination of naturally occurring compounds such as Gum Guggul (Commiphora mukul), Blue Flag root (Iris versicolor) and seaweeds such as Bladderwrack (Fucus vesiculosus) has shown beneficial effects in the treatment of thyroid dysfunction. These compounds have different mechanisms of action and may act synergistically to support thyroid health in conditions such as Hashimoto’s disease and subclinical hypothyroidism. Fucus provides iodine and ...
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Adaptogens are plant derived compounds that normalize endocrine function and promote adaptation to environmental stress. Adaptogenic herbs modulate stress responses, enhancing energy production and sleep quality and improving immune function. Eleuthero Root (Eleutherococcus), Holy Basil (Ocimum), and Rhodiola (Rhodiola) have been used for the treatment of stress, fatigue, sleep disturbances, elevated cortisol levels, adrenal deficiency, low DHEAS and alterations in DHEAS/cortisol ratio, chronic infection, impaired memory, and exercise intolerance. Adaptogens have been used as single agents or in combination with other plant-derived products such as Panax quinquefolius, Withania somnifera, Glycyrrhiza spp, Schisandra chinensis, and Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Other herbs that have ...
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OBJECTIVE: Currently, the position of the American Thyroid Association is that hypothyroidism causes symptoms of metabolic slowing due to inadequate production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland; it is diagnosed by a lab result of a high thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level. While hypothyroidism is considered a chronic, incurable condition, the symptoms typically can be controlled by ingestion of thyroxine (T4) for life. Due to this conclusion, medical providers overall adhere to the assumption that people with normal TSH levels can not have thyroid-hormone-responsive symptoms; likewise, thyroid-hormone-responsive symptoms should not be treated with triiodothyronine T3 and are not ...
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