Iodine is an essential trace mineral that is necessary for thyroid hormone production. With the prevalence of iodine deficiency worldwide, universal salt iodization programs were successfully implemented to reduce the incidence of iodine deficiency disorders; however, unexpected increases in the prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity occurred, and iodine excess was implicated as the causative factor. Despite these observations, epidemiological studies are inconsistent, and the etiology of autoimmune thyroid disease remains undefined. A review of observational and in vitro studies revealed that iodine alone is not responsible for thyroid autoimmunity. Experimental models used to explain iodine excess as the culprit in ...Read More
Autoimmune thyroid diseases, including Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, are the most common autoimmune conditions in humans. There is significant morbidity associated with thyroid autoimmunity, and typically ongoing management is required to control disease presentation and reduce sequelae. Thyroid tissues contain the highest concentration of selenium in the body, owing to selenium’s crucial role in glutathione peroxidases, thioredoxin reductases, and iodothryonine deiodinases. Selenium deficiency is associated with sub-optimal thyroid function, and has been shown to be a risk factor for both Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and Graves’ disease. As a therapeutic intervention, selenium has been shown in a number of studies ...Read More
Rosmarinic acid (RosA) is an ester of caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylactic acid. RosA has a number of beneficial biological activities, including antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. Oxidative stress is recognized as a common factor in many neurodegenerative diseases and is a proposed mechanism for age-related degenerative processes as a whole. RosA has shown antioxidative action, acting as a scavenger of free radicals. RosA protects neurons from oxidative stress, significantly attenuated hydrogen peroxide-induced reactive oxygen species generation, and apoptotic cell death and could contribute at least in part to neuroprotective effects. RosA has also been shown to suppress immunoglobulin ...Read More
Objective: To determine if aqueous, polysaccharide-containing Echinacea purpurea extracts taken orally increase pro-inflammatory cytokine responses ex vivo. Design: In two separate studies, the levels of TNF-alpha (TNF), interleukins 2 and 6 (IL-2 and IL-6) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) secreted by phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy adults randomized to take one of three E. purpurea formulations or placebo orally for 10 consecutive days were measured. Blood was obtained from participants at baseline and on days 2, 3, 7, and 10 while on study medication. PBMC were isolated and stimulated with PHA for 24 h, and supernatants collected ...Read More
Rosmarinic acid, a caffeic acid ester and a component of several members of the Lamiaceae family including Rosmarinus officinalis, Perilla spp., and Salvia officinialis, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects and is used for the treatment of asthma and reactive airway diseases, allergic disorders such as allergic rhinitis, otitis media, chemical sensitivity and multiple allergen reactivity. Rosmarinic acid can be used alone or in combination with other agents such as antioxidants, essential fatty acid supplements and other plant derived products. Rosmarinic acid can be administered orally and no adverse drug interactions have been reported. Nausea or mild stomach upset has been ...Read More
Objective: Lomatium dissectum is a plant native to the Western US traditionally used in the Native American culture to treat influenza, which remains a persistent threat to human health. Evidence suggests that dysregulation of cytokines and chemokines, including CXCL10, is the primary factor leading to poor prognosis in highly pathogenic influenza infection. This study was conducted to address the hypothesis that an aqueous extract of L. dissectum root inhibits CXCL10 secretion by human bronchial epithelial cells stimulated with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly i:c), a synthetic analog of viral dsRNA. Design: BEAS-2B cells treated with poly i:c were exposed to L. dissectum ...Read More
Autoimmune diseases are a group of disorders in which the immune system dysfunctions and attacks host tissues. Although the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disease has not been elucidated, there are several factors that have been associated with the disorder. Factors include genetic predisposition, nutrient deficiencies, use of certain medications affecting thyroid function, and environmental factors including exposure to radiation, heavy metals, and chemical contaminants. Thyroid disorders are often treated with drug therapy, which often have serious side effects and do not necessarily treat the underlying condition leading to the thyroid dysfunction. In recent years there has been increased interest ...Read More
Fibromyalgia is a debilitating condition presenting with symptoms of chronic muscular pain, fatigue, insomnia and cognitive dysfunction among other symptoms, which lead to a diminished quality of life. Although the exact pathogenesis and underlying mechanisms which lead to clinical manifestation are unknown, there is a growing line of evidence suggesting an association between fibromyalgia and thyroid dysfunction. Numerous studies have reported that patients with fibromyalgia have a high incidence of hypothyroidism. Further, thyroid autoimmunity has also been associated with fibromyalgia symptom severity. Circulating thyroid hormones do not provide an accurate status of thyroid function in patients with fibromyalgia, rather ...Read More
The incidence of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, also referred to as goitrous autoimmune thyroiditis, is estimated to be equivalent to that of Grave’s disease. Although first discovered one hundred years ago, the pathophysiology of this disease has not yet been completely defined. Patients present with varying degrees of symptoms and may present euthyroid. Studies have found associations between genetic predisposition, environmental factors and co-occurrence of other autoimmune disorders within patients with autoimmune thyroiditis. This has further impeded advances to clearly define the mechanisms associated with autoimmune thyroiditis as there are a number of potential confounding factors which are not shared by ...Read More
Estriol, coined the “weaker” of the three endogenous estrogens, has significant therapeutic effects, some of which are little known to clinicians. Estriol provides numerous clinical benefits, commanding the attention of researchers dating as far back as 1966 and continues to garner substantial consideration as a valuable and viable therapeutic agent. Some of the most common and effective treatments that employ estriol include: hot flashes, insomnia, skin enhancement, vaginal atrophy and reduced frequency of urinary tract infections. Most recently, estriol has shown the potential to treat individuals with Th1-mediated autoimmune illnesses, including multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. This review article ...Read More
Rosmarinic acid has been shown to selectively induce T cell apoptosis in aberrant lymphocytes, but not normal/quiescent T cells. Rosmarinic acid also reduces gamma interferon driven T cell responses and reduces interleukin production following T cell stimulation. Furthermore, rosmarinic acid affects signal transduction inside T cells by affecting specific tyrosine kinase enzymes inside the cell. By direct effects on T cells as well as other anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, rosmarinic acid may be a safe and valuable tool for reducing autoimmune inflammation. It may also be safe and advantageous to use in tandem with pharmaceutical treatment of autoimmune diseases ...Read More
Autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), involve destruction of healthy cells by the body’s own defensive mechanism. If the immune system’s faux pas is not corrected, the attack can progress to the heart, lungs, and other vital organs. The mechanisms that cause the deregulation of the immune response are not entirely understood. It can be assumed that heavy metal toxicity, leaky gut syndrome, infectious bacteria and parasites, and nutritional imbalances can overburden the body’s immune system, thus deregulating immune signals and responses. Ongoing research investigates the mechanism by which these factors ...Read More
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