Patients infected with chikungunya virus (CHIKV) exhibit specific characteristics, including high fever, rigors, headache, photophobia, petechial rash or maculopapular rash, and incapacitating joint pain. It is thought that the presence of CHIKV immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies play an important role in a new type of rheumatoid arthritis reported in 2009. It has been reported that 97% of patients with CHIKV infection complain of recurrent symptoms for 6 months. Fatigue was considered to be totally disabling in 4.6% of patients and very disabling in 42.8% of patients. Only 10% of patients considered their mood normal, whereas 37.8% felt ...Read More
Objective: To determine if aqueous, polysaccharide-containing Echinacea purpurea extracts taken orally increase pro-inflammatory cytokine responses ex vivo. Design: In two separate studies, the levels of TNF-alpha (TNF), interleukins 2 and 6 (IL-2 and IL-6) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) secreted by phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy adults randomized to take one of three E. purpurea formulations or placebo orally for 10 consecutive days were measured. Blood was obtained from participants at baseline and on days 2, 3, 7, and 10 while on study medication. PBMC were isolated and stimulated with PHA for 24 h, and supernatants collected ...Read More
Objective: Lomatium dissectum is a plant native to the Western US traditionally used in the Native American culture to treat influenza, which remains a persistent threat to human health. Evidence suggests that dysregulation of cytokines and chemokines, including CXCL10, is the primary factor leading to poor prognosis in highly pathogenic influenza infection. This study was conducted to address the hypothesis that an aqueous extract of L. dissectum root inhibits CXCL10 secretion by human bronchial epithelial cells stimulated with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly i:c), a synthetic analog of viral dsRNA. Design: BEAS-2B cells treated with poly i:c were exposed to L. dissectum ...Read More
This paper reviews the use of whole-plant Artemisia annua (sweet Annie) as it pertains to malaria including history, chemistry, clinical efficacy, pharmacokinetics, dosing, safety, and resistance. Artemisinin, the sesquiterpene lactone found in the plant, and various semi-synthetic variants of it used as critical drugs around the world for malaria are discussed in comparison to the whole plant. The multifaceted potential of A. annua against malaria including as a mosquito larvicide and to prevent transmission is discussed. The critical importance of combination therapy with this herb (be it with well-studied synthetic drugs or as-yet poorly studied natural products with activity ...Read More
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