Nutrition

ABSTRACT Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are by-products of metabolism that increase in the body during inflammation, smoking, and exposure to agents such as radiation and certain drugs. ROS cause damage to DNA and other molecules, and they are implicated in the development and progression of cancer. Antioxidants from endogenous and dietary sources can neutralize and destroy ROS and may play a role in cancer prevention. Experimental and animal studies have shown that treatment with single or combined antioxidants prevents neoplastic transformation of normal cells and inhibits tumor growth. Human observational studies suggest that high intake of antioxidant-rich foods, notably fruits, ...
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ABSTRACT Background: Iodine is a vital micronutrient essential for thyroid hormone synthesis and neurological development in utero and in the early postpartum period. Maternal iodine deficiency during pregnancy can result in infant congenital hypothyroidism. Congenital hypothyroidism is the most prevalent preventable cause of mental retardation in the world. Some proponents of supplementation believe that products containing both iodine (I2) and iodide (I−) are therapeutically superior to iodide-only formulations. As a step toward evaluating this claim, we tested three commercially available products that list both iodine and iodide on the label, to determine their content. Design: Two powdered and one aqueous ...
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ABSTRACT Purpose: To determine whether practitioner-endorsed and practitioner-suggested items for a patient-centered complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) outcomes questionnaire that became the Self-Assessment of Change instrument (developed under the NIH-NCCAM grant R01AT0033214) differ by CAM discipline. Methods: In-depth semi-structured interviews (n=24), one focus group (n=4), and two group discussions (n=108) were conducted with a convenience sample of CAM practitioners, including naturopathic physicians, Traditional Chinese Medicine practitioners, massage therapists, homeopaths, and energy healers. Qualitative analysis focused on patient outcomes practitioners said they observed in their practice. Outcome items and related comments by practitioners were further distilled for similarities and contrasts by ...
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Objective: We conducted a comprehensive review of the most current data available on the antihypertensive effects of 29 different nutraceuticals. Design: In this review, we collected evidence from clinical trials and meta-analyses of clinical trials with human subjects that are representative of the general adult population; studies of infants, children, and pregnant women were excluded. Observational studies were included in some cases as supplementary evidence, and in vitro or animal studies were included only for the purpose of explaining hypotensive mechanisms. PubMed served as the primary search engine. Outcome measures: The efficacy of each nutrient and botanical was demonstrated by ...
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Patients infected with chikungunya virus (CHIKV) exhibit specific characteristics, including high fever, rigors, headache, photophobia, petechial rash or maculopapular rash, and incapacitating joint pain. It is thought that the presence of CHIKV immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies play an important role in a new type of rheumatoid arthritis reported in 2009. It has been reported that 97% of patients with CHIKV infection complain of recurrent symptoms for 6 months. Fatigue was considered to be totally disabling in 4.6% of patients and very disabling in 42.8% of patients. Only 10% of patients considered their mood normal, whereas 37.8% felt ...
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Iodine is an essential trace mineral that is necessary for thyroid hormone production. With the prevalence of iodine deficiency worldwide, universal salt iodization programs were successfully implemented to reduce the incidence of iodine deficiency disorders; however, unexpected increases in the prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity occurred, and iodine excess was implicated as the causative factor. Despite these observations, epidemiological studies are inconsistent, and the etiology of autoimmune thyroid disease remains undefined. A review of observational and in vitro studies revealed that iodine alone is not responsible for thyroid autoimmunity. Experimental models used to explain iodine excess as the culprit in ...
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Vitamin K is an essential nutrient present in plants, animals, and fermented products that plays an important role in a number of biological systems. Recent evidence suggests that vitamin K has potential health benefits far beyond its role in activating coagulation factors. It appears that vitamin K2 (menaquinones) play an important role in optimal bone and cardiovascular health. The central role of vitamin K is the synthesis of γ-carboxyglutamate, which occurs during the vitamin K cycle. The vitamin K cycle allows important proteins, namely osteocalcin and matrix Gla protein, to become activated. These vitamin K–dependent proteins are of particular ...
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Background: Vitamin D is important for musculoskeletal health and may have significant implications for maintaining physical activity in elderly patients. Our goal was to investigate whether serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels are associated with pre-operative physical activity in patients who are offered elective knee or hip joint replacement surgery. Methods: We performed a single-center, retrospective analysis of patients who had elective knee or hip replacement surgery from 2002 to 2012. To investigate the association of serum 25OHD levels with pre-operative physical activity, as assessed by the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) activity scale, we performed a multivariable logistic regression ...
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Autoimmune thyroid diseases, including Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, are the most common autoimmune conditions in humans. There is significant morbidity associated with thyroid autoimmunity, and typically ongoing management is required to control disease presentation and reduce sequelae. Thyroid tissues contain the highest concentration of selenium in the body, owing to selenium’s crucial role in glutathione peroxidases, thioredoxin reductases, and iodothryonine deiodinases. Selenium deficiency is associated with sub-optimal thyroid function, and has been shown to be a risk factor for both Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and Graves’ disease. As a therapeutic intervention, selenium has been shown in a number of studies ...
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Nutrigenomics is the study of the effects of food and food constituents on gene expression. The study of nutrigenomics may have a major impact in the development of tailor-made food, supplements and beverage products in the near future. The “genetic nutritioneering” concept summarizes the information on how diet, supplements, lifestyle and environmental factors influence gene expression. In order to overcome their particular genetic pre-disposition that can lead to serious diseases, people may be able to choose customized diets, supplements and make lifestyle modifications, which would optimize their metabolic status. Nutrient intake for each person varies according to their unique ...
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Peripheral metabolism plays a significant role in maintaining thyroid hormone expression in local tissues. The thyroid secretes thyroxine (T4) at substantially greater levels than triiodothyronine (T3), relying on peripheral mechanisms to convert T4 to T3. Peripheral control is exerted through a number of pathways. These pathways include deiodination, facilitated by deiodinase enzymes, as well as conjugation and lipid peroxidation. Factors influencing any or all of the peripherally active pathways continue to be explored and may help explain why many patients continue to experience symptoms consistent with hypothyroidism, including low body temperature, even when their thyroid blood tests are normal ...
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Chelation therapy, a treatment long undervalued by conventional medicine, has been used by alternative medicine practitioners to alleviate various metabolic toxicities. In particular, there has been significant controversy around its use in patients with coronary artery disease. We performed a focused review of the recent National Institute of Health (NIH) trial to investigate the role of chelation therapy in the treatment of patients with coronary artery disease. The study was the first randomized, factorial trial (n=1708) in patients with coronary artery disease, already receiving standard, guideline-approved treatment. Patients were randomized to EDTA chelation therapy with or without oral multivitamin multimineral ...
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Osteoporosis is a preventable, potentially crippling disease characterized by low bone density and increased bone fragility that affects millions of people. The seeds of this pernicious disease are sown during adolescence, when the skeleton is most active in absorbing dietary calcium and building up nearly all the bone mass that will carry the teenager throughout life. Dietary intake of calcium, vitamin D and vitamin K, particularly vitamin K2, is critical during this life stage for optimal bone growth; unfortunately, the majority of adolescents in the USA do not consume adequate amounts. In addition, many adolescents are now using oral ...
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Autoimmune diseases are a group of disorders in which the immune system dysfunctions and attacks host tissues. Although the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disease has not been elucidated, there are several factors that have been associated with the disorder. Factors include genetic predisposition, nutrient deficiencies, use of certain medications affecting thyroid function, and environmental factors including exposure to radiation, heavy metals, and chemical contaminants. Thyroid disorders are often treated with drug therapy, which often have serious side effects and do not necessarily treat the underlying condition leading to the thyroid dysfunction. In recent years there has been increased interest ...
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The incidence of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, also referred to as goitrous autoimmune thyroiditis, is estimated to be equivalent to that of Grave’s disease. Although first discovered one hundred years ago, the pathophysiology of this disease has not yet been completely defined. Patients present with varying degrees of symptoms and may present euthyroid. Studies have found associations between genetic predisposition, environmental factors and co-occurrence of other autoimmune disorders within patients with autoimmune thyroiditis. This has further impeded advances to clearly define the mechanisms associated with autoimmune thyroiditis as there are a number of potential confounding factors which are not shared by ...
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Iodine is an essential component of thyroid hormones and is therefore essential for normal thyroid function. However, the therapeutic use of iodine requires careful evaluation because of its narrow range of intake to support optimal thyroid function. The combination of naturally occurring compounds such as Gum Guggul (Commiphora mukul), Blue Flag root (Iris versicolor) and seaweeds such as Bladderwrack (Fucus vesiculosus) has shown beneficial effects in the treatment of thyroid dysfunction. These compounds have different mechanisms of action and may act synergistically to support thyroid health in conditions such as Hashimoto’s disease and subclinical hypothyroidism. Fucus provides iodine and ...
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Iodine deficiency is a leading cause of thyroid disorders. Deficiency can manifest as hypothyroidism, goiter, or impaired mental function. Insufficient levels of iodine increase the risk of thyroid cancer and may be associated with risk of breast, ovarian, endometrial, stomach, and esophageal cancer. In an effort to address iodine deficiency, salt iodization was introduced. Yet, despite these efforts, iodine levels have decreased in recent years. Several tests may be used to determine iodine status including the iodine spot test, iodine loading test, bromide spot test, bromide loading test, fluoride spot test, fluoride loading test and sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) test ...
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Glutathione (GSH), the most abundant intracellular low molecular weight thiol, has diverse physiological roles, and altered GSH status has been implicated in a number of chronic, acute, and age-related diseases, as well as the aging process itself. Its function as an antioxidant and determinant of cellular redox potential is crucial both for protection from reactive oxygen species as well as a signaling molecule involved in cellular proliferation, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis. It is also an important thiol buffer, maintaining sulfhydryl groups in their reduced form, an additional mechanism for cellular signaling. Glutathione has also emerged a key modulator ...
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OBJECTIVE: To review the current literature regarding vitamin D insufficiency and supplementation in major illnesses. DESIGN AND METHODS: We reviewed Pubmed-indexed, English language manuscripts from January, 2003 to June, 2012 using search terms related to vitamin D, all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, and cancer. OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence of disease, risk ratios associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels, and/or vitamin D supplementation schedules were documented. RESULTS: Although 25(OH)D levels ≥20 ng/mL were often associated with improved health outcomes, evidence suggests that 25(OH)D levels ≥30 ng/mL may confer additional health benefits. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the available evidence, vitamin ...
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