Progesterone Within Ovulatory Menstrual Cycles Needed for Cardiovascular Protection: An Evidence-Based Hypothesis

Abstract Women experience acute myocardial infarctions (AMI) 10 years later than men – evidence that estrogen is protective is not consistent. Ovulatory disturbances (low progesterone but normal estradiol levels) silently occur in >33% of all cycles. Progesterone-based (cycle-timed serum or saliva) levels or urinary metabolite excretions are necessary to diagnose…

The Safety of Phytoestrogens in Menopause, Prostate and Breast Cancer

Abstract Plant based natural products have been proposed as alternatives to the use of hormones for the treatment of menopausal symptoms, which has been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer and coronary artery disease. Specific herbal compounds such as Thai Kudzu root (Pueraria mirifica) have shown beneficial effects…

Estriol; the ‘Good’ Estrogen Advances and Updates in its Clinical Uses

Abstract Estriol, coined the “weaker” of the three endogenous estrogens, has significant therapeutic effects, some of which are little known to clinicians. Estriol provides numerous clinical benefits, commanding the attention of researchers dating as far back as 1966 and continues to garner substantial consideration as a valuable and viable therapeutic…

Treating Adrenal Insufficiency and Hypotension with Glycyrrhiza

Abstract Glycyrrhiza may be appropriate as an adjunctive therapy for a variety of disorders involving mild adrenal insufficiency, low aldosterone output, or hyperkalemia due to effects on 11-β-HSD enzymes, direct effects at mineralocorticoid receptors, and downstream effects on aldosterone as well as fluid and electrolyte balance. Glycyrrhiza has also been…

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