The Role of Iodine Deficiency and Subsequent Repletion in Autoimmune Thyroid Disease and Thyroid Cancer

Iodine is an essential trace mineral that is necessary for thyroid hormone production. With the prevalence of iodine deficiency worldwide, universal salt iodization programs were successfully implemented to reduce the incidence of iodine deficiency disorders; however, unexpected increases in the prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity occurred, and iodine excess was implicated as the causative factor. Despite these observations, epidemiological studies are inconsistent, and the etiology of autoimmune thyroid disease remains undefined. A review of observational and in vitro studies revealed that iodine alone is not responsible for thyroid autoimmunity.

The Role of Selenium in Thyroid Autoimmunity: A Review

Abstract Autoimmune thyroid diseases, including Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, are the most common autoimmune conditions in humans. There is significant morbidity associated with thyroid autoimmunity, and typically ongoing management is required to control disease presentation and reduce sequelae. Thyroid tissues contain the highest concentration of selenium in the body,…

The Effect of Rosmarinic Acid on Immunological and Neurological Systems: A Basic Science and Clinical Review

Abstract Rosmarinic acid (RosA) is an ester of caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylactic acid. RosA has a number of beneficial biological activities, including antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. Oxidative stress is recognized as a common factor in many neurodegenerative diseases and is a proposed mechanism for age-related degenerative processes as…

Assessing the Effect of Orally Administered Echinacea purpurea Extracts vs. Placebo on Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Responses Ex Vivo

Objective: To determine if aqueous, polysaccharide-containing Echinacea purpurea extracts taken orally increase pro-inflammatory cytokine responses ex vivo. Design: In two separate studies, the levels of TNF-alpha (TNF), interleukins 2 and 6 (IL-2 and IL-6) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) secreted by phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy adults…

Rosmarinic Acid as a Novel Agent in the Treatment of Allergies and Asthma

Abstract Rosmarinic acid, a caffeic acid ester and a component of several members of the Lamiaceae family including Rosmarinus officinalis, Perilla spp., and Salvia officinialis, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects and is used for the treatment of asthma and reactive airway diseases, allergic disorders such as allergic rhinitis, otitis media, chemical…

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