The Effect of Rosmarinic Acid on Immunological and Neurological Systems: A Basic Science and Clinical Review

Abstract Rosmarinic acid (RosA) is an ester of caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylactic acid. RosA has a number of beneficial biological activities, including antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. Oxidative stress is recognized as a common factor in many neurodegenerative diseases and is a proposed mechanism for age-related degenerative processes as…

Extra-Thyroidal Factors Impacting Thyroid Hormone Homeostasis: A Review

Abstract Peripheral metabolism plays a significant role in maintaining thyroid hormone expression in local tissues. The thyroid secretes thyroxine (T4) at substantially greater levels than triiodothyronine (T3), relying on peripheral mechanisms to convert T4 to T3. Peripheral control is exerted through a number of pathways. These pathways include deiodination, facilitated…

Preliminary Case Series of Artemisinin for Prostate Cancer in a Naturopathic Practice

Objective: To determine if oral artemisinin is safe and has a short-term effect on prostate specific antigen (PSA) kinetics in patients with prostate cancer (CaP). Design: Retrospective case series. Setting: A private naturopathic urology clinic in Seattle, WA. Patients: All artemisinin-treated CaP patients were identified retrospectively between 2005 and 2008.…

Assessing the Effect of Orally Administered Echinacea purpurea Extracts vs. Placebo on Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Responses Ex Vivo

Objective: To determine if aqueous, polysaccharide-containing Echinacea purpurea extracts taken orally increase pro-inflammatory cytokine responses ex vivo. Design: In two separate studies, the levels of TNF-alpha (TNF), interleukins 2 and 6 (IL-2 and IL-6) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) secreted by phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy adults…

Rosmarinic Acid as a Novel Agent in the Treatment of Allergies and Asthma

Abstract Rosmarinic acid, a caffeic acid ester and a component of several members of the Lamiaceae family including Rosmarinus officinalis, Perilla spp., and Salvia officinialis, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects and is used for the treatment of asthma and reactive airway diseases, allergic disorders such as allergic rhinitis, otitis media, chemical…

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